Learning, Disabilities, Presentation, Slide, mental, Retardation, psychology, problems, disorder, treatment, Life, Learning, Writting, Reading, problems, Firoz Ahmed, Presented, by firoz, firoz collection,
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Learning Disabilities of Learning Problem

Student of JnU
Dhaka, Bangladesh

Learning Disabilities

The inadequate development found in learning disabilities, a term that refers to retardation, disorder or delayed development, may be manifested  language, speech, mathematical, or motor skills, and it is not due to any reliably demonstrable physical or neurological defect. Of these types of problem, the best known and most widely researched are a variety of reading/writing difficulties known collectively as dyslexia.


Some Problems for Dyslexia

In dyslexia, the individual manifests problems in word recognition and reading comprehension; often he or she is markedly deficient in spelling as well. On assessment of reading skill, these persons routinely omit, add and distort words, and their reading painfully silo and halting.  

The diagnosis of learning disability or disorder is restricted to those case in which there is clear impairment in school performance or (if the person is not a student) in daily activities-impairment not due to mental retardation or to a pervasive developmental disorder such as autism. Skill deficits due to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are coded under that diagnosis.

Typically, these children have overall IQ's, family backgrounds, and exposure to cultural norms and symbols that are consistent with a least average achievement in school. They do not have obvious crippling emotional problems, not do they seem to be lacking in motivation, cooperativeness, or eagerness to please their teacher and parents- at least not at the outset of their formal education. Nevertheless, they fail, often abysmally and usually with a stubborn, puzzling persistence.

High levels of general talent and of motivation to overcome the obstacle of a learning disorder sometime produce a life of extraordinary achievement.

Causal Factors in Learning Disabilities

Probably the most widely held view of the causes of specific learning disabilities is that they are the products of subtle central nervous system impairments. In particular, these disabilities are thought to results from some sort of immaturity, deficiency, or deregulation limited to those brain function that supposedly mediate, for normal children, the cognitive skills that LD children cannot efficiently acquire.  

For example, many researchers believe that language-related LDs such as dyslexia are associate with a failure of the brain to develop in a normally asymmetrical manner with respect to the right and left hemispheres. Specially, portions of the left hemisphere, where language function is normally mediate, for unknown reasons appear to remain relatively underdeveloped in many dyslexic individuals( Beaton, 1997). 

Resent work with functional magnetic resonances imaging has suggested that dyslexia individuals may have a deficiency of physiological activation in a brain central believed to be involved with rapid visual processing ( Travis, 1996 )

Some investigators believe that the various forms of LD, or vulnerability to develop them, may be genetically transmitted. This issue seems not to have been studied with the same intensity or methodological rigor as in other disorder. Identification of a gene region for dyslexia on chromosome 6 has been reported ( Schulte-Koerne, 2001 ). 

Although it would be somewhat surprising if a single gene were identified as the causal factor in all cases of reading disorder, the hypothesis of a genetic contribution to at least the dyslexic form of LD seems promising. One twin study of mathematics disability has also turned up evidence of some genetic contribution to this form of LD ( Alarcon et al.,1997).

Despite the seeming multitude of factors involved in LD, there may be some common elements. This is the position of Worden (1986), who argues that we should study the approaches taken by good learners in order to identify the areas where LD children are weak. Specialized training could then be employed to remedy the specific deficiencies . Even precise information on the manner in which LD children's learning approaches differ from those of normal children would leave unanswered questions about the sources of these differences. Nevertheless, pursuit of this idea might produce a set of rational, fine-tuned strategies for intervening to correct LD children's inefficient modes of learning.

Treatments and Outcomes 

Because we do not yet have a confident grasp of what is ''wrong'' with the average LD child, we have had limited success in treating these children. Many informal and single-case reports claim success with various treatment approaches, but direct instruction strategies often do not succeed in transforming these children's abilities ( Getting & Kosice, 2001), and there are few well-designed and well-executed outcome studies on specific treatments for LD.
Ellis (1993) has offered a comprehensive intervention model to facilitate learning in LD. This integrative Strategy Instruction (ISI) has generated considerable interest among professionals in the field. (see Houck, 1993; Hutchinson, 1993). Organized according to particular content areas, it envisions a variety of teacher directed instructional strategies directed at key aspects of the learning process: orienting, farming, applying, and extending. Although the model appears not to have been rigorously tested for efficacy, it knowledge-based and systematic character is a welcome addition to analysis of the problems that LD children face.

However, it application would demand high levels of administrative flexibility, teacher skill, and teacher motivation, none of which can be taken for granted in the average school environment (see Bearn & Smith, 1998; Male& May,1997).

We have only limited data on the long-term, adult adjustments of people who grew up with the personal, academic, and social problems that LD generally entails. Two studies of college students with LD ( Gregg & Hoy, 1989; Saracoglu et al.,1989 ) suggested that as a group they continue to have problems-academic, personal, and social-into the postsecondary education years.

In a community survey of LD adults, Khan, Cowan, and Roy (1997) found that some 50 percent of them had personality abnormalities. Cato and Rice (1982) extracted from the available literature a lengthy list of problems experienced by the typical LD adult. These include-in addition to expected difficulties with self-confidence-continuing problems with deficits with self-confidence-continuing problems with deficits in the ordinary skills such as math that these people had trouble with as children. The authors did note, however, that there are considerable individual differences in these outcomes and that some adults with LD are able to manage very well.

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